July 22, 2019

Json Web Token (JWT) Authentication. A How to Guide

Web API is a common thing to implement these days. It gives flexibility and great separation between presentation and business logic layers.

When we are implementing mobile applications or Single Page Applications (SPA) we will need to use Web API. One of the challenges of implementing Web API is security. This is because it is globally accessible through the internet, and so we will need a way to secure it.

If we are using ASP.NET Core there are a couple ways to secure our Web Api, we can use Identity Server with the Oauth2 protocol and the other is using Json Web Token(JWT) Authentication

Often when we are implementing Web API we just need a simple authentication scheme using username and password, and after the authentication passes, token identification can be used. JWT is an open standard for case like this, the concept is simple and ASP.NET Core has an Identity Model and JWT middleware that will help us to implement this simply and quickly.

In thisarticle I would like to share my way of implementing JWT Authorization that weare using in one of our projects at 42 Interactive. It’s a SPA Project and weare using Vue.js on the front-end and Web API with ASP.NET Core 2.2 on theback-end so it needs to be secured.

Configure Authentication

After theASP.NET Core Api project has been created we will need to configure ourauthentication. Firstly, we need to configure some settings in appsettings.jsonthat we will use later on.

As a note, when using HmacSha256 the keys encoded length should be more than 128 bits otherwise the token generation will fail. That said, it is recommended to use long complex keys to prevent a potential brute force attack.

Next, weneed to setup our authentication by declaring the JWT service to theapplication pipeline. We do this in the ConfigureServices method of theapplication startup class (startup.cs).

With thatpiece of code we are saying:

  1. authorize by default using the JWTscheme,
  2. we want to validate the Issuer,Audience, Lifetime and Signing key,
  3. the ValidIssuer is from our config,
  4. the ValidAudience is from our config,and
  5. the key is a Symmetric Security Keybase on the value in our config

So every timean authorization validation request is needed the token will be validated basedon the above criteria.

ASP.NETCore has a well known Identity model used as a standard. Facilitating bestpractise, we also want to use it in our implementation, so we can define theconfiguration like this:

Since we are using only WebApi we will need AddIdentityCore<TUser> and not AddIdentity<TUser,TRole> . Using the later extended method will cause problems for us because of the extra settings relevant to websites and their routing.

That’s it! Wehave now added authentication middleware to our application pipeline, next weneed to create a mechanism to add users.

New User Registration

In theproject we are using Entity Framework (EF) code first as the database ORM(Object Relational Mapping). I won’t explain much about EF code first,basically we have a DbContext and use it to add a new user to our IdentityDatabase and if you haven’t used this library we highly recommend you look itup (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/ef/ef6/modeling/code-first/workflows/new-database).

Next weneed to create a new controller. Let us call it AccountController, and use someDependency Injection (DI) magic from .Net Core to match objects to our variablesvia constructor injection:

Now we cancreate a register method to add a new user to our custom Identity User tableand another non-Identity table

Now we aredone with the register method, for simplicity we called a basic databaseoperation using DBContext. Ensure this method is free from authorizationotherwise we will get a ‘401 Unauthorized http’ exception.

We can nowregister users so lets move on to authenticating them and issuing theiridentity tokens.

Validate User and IssuingJWT

And it allcomes down to this section when implementing JWT, we will need to validate ouruser and then issue the JWT. We will do this in the AccountController, letscreate a Login method to validate our user

The logicis very simple because of the help ASP.NET Core Identity provides, we just needto check the password is correct and then generate the JWT. Upon success we canuse the following method to generate the JWT.

There arecouple of common algorithms for signing JWTs such as HMAC + SHA256(HmacSha256),RS256, or ES256. The simplest one is HmacSHA256 because it only uses a secretwithout any need of private and public keys. If you want to know more aboutthis signing algorithm, you can visit this reference: “Brute Forcing HS256 is Possible: TheImportance of Using Strong Keys in Signing JWTs

Here wedefine the key that we need and the issuer to generate the token, along withthe use of HmacSha256 encryption for [SM11] [os12] the credential. It will give us a random token every time login requesthappens.

In this process the user just needs to send their username and password once, then a token is returned, after that the client side uses the token for every request. The token will be validated using the token and its expiry time to avoid hijacking used by an undesired person.

Usage and Testing of JWTAuthentication

I will use Postman fortesting, thistool will allow us to send and receive API requests with an easy intuative UI.

When creating the Web API project there is a ValueController class that is generated by default from the project template. Let’s use this controller for some testing] . We can decorate this controller with Authorize attribute and try to access it, it should return an Unauthorized HTTP code (401).

Now, we want to access it using a token from our implemented solution. First things first, we need to register a new user:

Then afterthe user has been created we can try to login.

The loginwill return a token, and this token can be use to call the API endpoint inValueController that previously returned 401-Unathorized. Lets call it againand define the Authorization Header the value is “bearer ” + the token wereceived

As you can see in the screenshot above, the API can be accessed now and that’s the end of our small beginning of JWT Authentication journey.[


A JWTImplementation in ASP.NET Core is a very straight forward and simpleauthentication method to implement. We can Integrate it with ASP.NET identitymodel without much difficulty. Using JWT we also avoid sending sensitiveinformation like a password again and again.

So if wejust need a simple Authentication paradigm when implementing SPA or a MobileApplication we can just use JWT Authentication. It will save time because itsless complex than other methods and it’s readily available by .net core.

What’s Next

In thisarticle, we created a simple authorization process to secure our API. Thismethod needs the user to be Authenticated, but very often we will need to domore complex Authorization the API can only be accessed if the user is manager,or the API can only be accessed if the age of a user is more than 18. We canuse Claim based authorization for these use cases by storing this information ina certain section of the token then call on it later. For more informationabout claim and how to use it, please visit this reference.